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DR.J.AL. RANGANATH

Nephrology

Kidney Failure: Types and Causes of Kidney Failure

Kidney-Failure

Kidney Failure also called as a last stage kidney disease. This is a medical condition in which the kidneys no longer work. It mainly divided into two types. They are Acute Kidney Failure and Chronic Kidney Failure.

Symptoms of Kidney Failure may comprise leg swelling, feeling tired, retching, loss of craving, or confusion.

Kidney Failure causes comprise diabetes, hypertension, nephrotic disorder, and polycystic kidney disease. We frequently found a diagnosis of critical illness on a combination of elements. On other hand, complications of Chronic Kidney Disease may contain coronary illness, hypertension, or frailty.

For instance, less urine generation or expanded serum creatinine. We ordinarily find a severe infection on a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) of under 15. It is also equal to arrange 5 acute kidney failure.

Above all, the treatment of acute kidney failure commonly relies upon the basic cause. Treatment of chronic illness may comprise hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, or a kidney transplant.

Hemodialysis uses a machine to channel the blood outside the body. In peritoneal dialysis explicit liquid set into the stomach pit and after consumed. And this procedure is repeated numerous times per day.

INDEX:

Kidney Failure Overview:

Kidney Failure Overview

First, we should know what is Kidney failure? When your kidney stops functioning, then they call it Kidney Failure. Apart from this, Kidney transplantation includes surgically setting of a kidney from another person. Then taking the immunosuppressant prescription to avoid rejection.

Other suggested measures from severe diseases comprise remaining dynamic and explicit dietary changes. In this blog post, we are discussing what is Kidney Failure, types of Kidney Failures, Symptoms, functions of kidneys, etc.

Functions of Kidneys:

Functions of Kideys

Firstly, we will know the functions of the Kidneys. Major functions of the Kidney is to clean the Blood. As blood moves through the body, it takes extra fluids, chemicals, and waste. Kidneys separate this waste from the Blood and excrete out in the form of urine.

If the kidney cannot do this function, then this situation is critical and untreated. As a result, serious health problems may arise, for instance, loss of life.

Types of Kidney Failures:

Types of Kidney Failure

There are two types of Kidney Failures.

  • Acute Kidney Injury
  • Chronic Kidney Disease

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI):

Acute Kidney Failure

Acute Kidney Injury is called Acute Kidney Failure or Renal Failure. This means sudden or unexpected fail of kidney function which grows within 7 days.

It happens because of danger to the kidney tissue brought about by reduced kidney blood flow. AKI can start from different causes. For instance, prerenal, intrinsic, and postrenal. For this kind of AKI, individuals need hemodialysis.

The reason must be recognized and treated to stop the progression. Above all, dialysis might be important to connect the time gap required for treating these key causes.

Above all, AKI is analyzed based on trademark research center discoveries. For instance, raised blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, or lack of the kidneys to deliver adequate measures of urine.

Above all, AKI may cause various inconveniences. This includes metabolic acidosis, high potassium levels, uremia, changes in body liquid parity. And also consequences for other organ frameworks, including passing.

Individuals who have encountered AKI may have a high danger of severe kidney infection later on. The executives comprise treatment of the fundamental reason and steady consideration, for instance, renal substitution treatment.

Causes:

Acute Kidney Failure happens when the blood supply to the kidneys is all of a sudden disturbed. Or else when the kidneys over-burden with poisons. Reasons for intense kidney damage comprises accidents, wounds, or intricacies from medical procedures.

In this, the kidneys are relieved of typical blood flow for an expanded time. Bypass surgery is a case of one such a strategy.

Drugs overdoses, unplanned of medications, for instance, antimicrobials or chemotherapy, may also cause the beginning of severe kidney damage. However, the kidneys can frequently regain from the intense kidney damage, permitting the individual with AKI to continue an ordinary life.

Above all, individuals experiencing intense kidney failure require steady treatment until their kidneys regain capacity. And they regularly stay at high risk of creating future kidney injury

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD):

Chronic Kidney Failure

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a kind of kidney disease in which there is a continuous loss of kidney function. Early on there are normally no symptoms. Later, leg swelling, feeling tired, regurgitating, loss of hunger or disarray may start. Complications may incorporate heart illness, hypertension, bone sickness, or anemia.

Reasons for Chronic Kidney Disease incorporate diabetes, hypertension, glomerulonephritis, and polycystic kidney disease. Risk factors incorporate a family history of the condition. Diagnosis is mostly by blood tests to gauge the glomerular filtration rate and urine tests to quantify albumin. Further tests, for instance, an ultrasound or kidney biopsy might be done to decide the basic cause.

Causes:

Chronic Kidney Disease or CKD has various causes. The most well-known reasons for CKD are diabetes mellitus and, uncontrolled hypertension. Polycystic kidney malady is another notable reason for CKD.

Most of the individuals troubled with polycystic kidney illness have a family history of the infection. Other hereditary diseases also influence kidney work.

Frequent use of drugs, for example, ibuprofen, and paracetamol can likewise cause severe kidney disease. Some irresistible disease operators, for instance, hantavirus, can affect the kidneys, causing kidney injury.

Causes of Kidney Failure:

Causes of Kidney Failure

As we mentioned above, Kidney Failure means a sudden loss of bloodstream to yours. There are several causes of Kidney failure. Here is the list of some other causes of Kidney Failure are listed below:

  • A blood clot in or around your kidneys
  • Kidney Infection
  • Diabetes
  • High Blood Pressure
  • Several Cysts in the Kidneys
  • Systemic lupus Eratosthenes
  • Hardening of the arteries
  • Excessive use of medications

Symptoms of Kidney Failure:

Symptoms of Kidney Failure

Here are the list of the signs and symptoms of kidney failure

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Loss of appetite
  • Fatigue and weakness
  • Sleep problems
  • Changes in how much you urinate
  • Decreased mental sharpness
  • Muscle twitches and cramps
  • Swelling of feet and ankles
  • Persistent itching
  • Chest pain, if fluid builds up around the lining of the heart
  • Shortness of breath, if fluid builds up in the lungs
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) that’s difficult to control

Above mentioned are some of the symptoms of Kidney disease.

Treatment for Kidney Failure:

If you are suffering from last-stage of kidney disease, then you have to choose for Dialysis or Kidney Transplant. There are several types of Dialysis and for more information, you have to consult your doctor for the best treatment.

Listed below are some treatments for Kidney Failure.

  • Hemodialysis
  • Peritoneal Dialysis
  • Kidney Transplant

Hemodialysis:

This is one type of treatment procedure for Kidney Failure. This process is also called “Hemo”. In this process, a machine is used to clean blood. This procedure is done at the Dialysis center or even at your home.

Peritoneal Dialysis:

Peritoneal Dialysis is done when your kidneys not functioning properly on their own. In this process, a purifying liquid moves through a pipe into part of your abdomen. From there it filters unwanted items from your blood. After a specific time, the liquid with unwanted waste items moves out of your abdomen and is disposed of.

Kidney Transplant:

Kidney Transplant means, replacing your unhealthy kidney with a healthy Kidney. For this, a healthy kidney must be available from any Living Donor or from the deceased donor. After replacing the failed kidney with a healthy kidney, then a new kidney starts its function just as your old healthy kidney does.

FAQ’S:

FAQ'S

What is the treatment for Acute Kidney Failure/ Acute Renal Failure?

If you are diagnosed with acute kidney failure at an early stage, it can be treated in different ways. Some of them are diet, medication or by dialysis. For Acute Kidney Failure, Hemodialysis is preferred until it is cured.

2. Can Kidney Failure be cured without Dialysis?

Not all kidney failures are severe or chronic. Some acute kidney failure can be cured after treatment. But some end-stage kidney diseases, the only treatment is Dialysis for a short period. Above all, in Chronic Kidney Failure, your kidneys will not be cured and dialysis is required for rest of life.

3. Diet for kidney disease treatment

If you are suffering from Kidney failure disease, then you should take a kidney-friendly diet plan. It is different from person to person regarding diet plan.

What you drink and eat will help in making you healthy. Apart from this, here we are briefly explaining the basic diet plan of kidney failure person. But for complete details, consult your doctor.

Some kidney disease occurs because of High Blood Pressure and diabetes. If you control your eating habits, then you can control your kidney disease from getting worse. Here is the list of calories, proteins, fats and carbohydrates which one should take if suffering from Kidney disease.

Calories:

Calories will be decided depending upon your age, gender, body size and etc. Some people need high calories and some need less. A doctor will decide how much amount of calories should kidney diseased patient take. Intake of calories also depends upon the candidate’s weight.

Protein:

Proteins are needed for the body in order to grow and stay healthy. If you are having too little proteins then the growth of hair, skin, and nails will also be decreased. Apart from that if you take high proteins also become a problem sometimes. To know how much amount of proteins a kidney failure person needs, visit your consultant doctor.

Low-Protein Foods:
  • Bread
  • Fruits
  • Vegetables
  • Pasta and rice
High-Protein Foods:
  • Red meat
  • Poultry
  • Fish
  • Eggs

 

Carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates generate energy to your body. Healthy Carbohydrates include fruits, and vegetables. Unhealthy carbohydrates include sugar and soft drinks.

Fat: 

Fat is vital in your diet. It gives you energy and uses some vitamins in your food. Kidney diseased patient should take fat in limited quantity. Too much intake of Fats leads to heart diseases.

Good Fats:
  • Olive Oil
  • Peanut Oil
  • Corn Oil
Bad Fats:
  • Butter
  • Meats

4. How many stages are there in Kidney Failure

There are 5 stages of Kidney Failure.

  • Stage 1: with normal or high estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) ( i.e., GFR > 90 ML/min)
  • Stage 2: Mild Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) (GFR = 60-89 ML/min)
  • Stage 3A: Means they are Moderately damaged that is, Glomerular Filtration Rate is 45-59 ML/min
  • Stage 3B: Moderate Chronic Kidney Disease (GFR = 30-44 ML/min)
  • Stage4: Severe CKD (GFR = 15-29 ML/min)
  • Stage 5: End Stage CKD (GFR <15 ML/min). This is the last or end-stage of Kidney Failure. At this stage, go for Dialysis or your kidney need to be replaced.

5. What are the causes of Kidney failure?

As we discussed previously, there are two types of Kidney Failures. One is Acute Kidney Failure and the second one is Chronic Kidney Failure. Here we are discussing causes for both Acute and Chronic Kidney Failure.

Causes for Acute Kidney Failure:

  • You have a condition that blood streams slowly to your kidneys.
  • You encounter straight harm to your kidneys.
  • Your kidneys’ pee drainage tubes (ureters) wind up blocked and wastes can’t leave your body through your urine.

Causes of Chronic Kidney Failure:

  • Diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Glomerulonephritis, an inflammation of the kidney’s filtering units
  • Interstitial nephritis, an inflammation of the kidney’s tubules and surrounding structures
  • Poly-cystic kidney disease
  • Prolonged obstruction of the urinary tract, from situations such as enlarged prostate, kidney stones, and some cancers
  • Vesicoureteral reflux, a condition that causes urine to get back into your kidneys
  • Recurrent kidney infection

6. Can a person recover from kidney failure?

Acute renal disease is a genuine condition however it might resolve in time and sometimes in days. Retrieval additionally relies upon the fundamental reason and the treatment given. Kids will have a superior shot of recovering their kidney work than adults.

In chronic renal failure, the kidney works to slow down step by step yet dynamically after some time. It is a long-lasting condition that can prompt end-stage renal illness in a few patients. However, this procedure can be postponed in a number of patients by safeguarding as much kidney function as feasible. This incorporates controlling pulse and different conditions that can influence the movement of CRF.

7. What are the treatment options for Kidney Failure?

There are 3 ways of treatment options for kidney failure

  • Dialysis
  • Kidney Transplant
  • Preventing Kidney Failure

8. Is kidney failure treatable?

Relying upon the hidden reason, they can treat a few kinds of a kidney infection. However, Chronic Kidney Failure has no fix. Treatment more often comprises measures to help control signs and side effects, decrease difficulties, and moderate movement of the illness. In the event that your kidneys turn out to be seriously harmed, you may require treatment for end-stage kidney disease.

 

 

Author:

Dr.J.AL. Ranganath

  • MD, DM
  • Consultant Nephrologist
  • Medical Registration No: 44696

  •   Mon – Sat: 10 AM – 4 PM*
  •   Hitech city, Madhapur

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