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Dengue fever is a mosquito-borne infection that causes severe flu-like symptoms and can be fatal. This article helps you understand about Dengue Fever, Symptoms, Causes, Prevention, Diagnosis and Treatments.

In 2018 the monsoon is expected to be very high. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), dengue has drastically increased in the last few years.

Article Context:

Dengue Fever:

Dengue fever is an infection caused by dengue viruses, of which there are four different serotypes known to infect humans.

Serotype refers to groups of microorganisms that are extremely closely related, but can be distinguished by having slightly different antigens (a foreign substance which causes the body to produce antibodies) or causing the body to produce slightly different antibodies.

Dengue fever occurs in tropical and subtropical areas of the world.

Dengue symptoms:

  • Muscle pain
  • Feeling nauseous
  • Headache (Very frequently)
  • Loss of appetite
  • High fever triggering often and no antibiotic works
  • Pain behind eyes
  • Exhaustion
  • Rashes
  • Vomiting
  • Fatigue
  • Swollen glands
  • Sudden weight loss
dengue symptoms
Fig-1: Dengue Symptoms

Dengue symptoms in child:

Dengue affects most of the children below 10 years old. They have to be treated very carefully otherwise it grows fast through stages and they may move to helpless condition.

  • Mild bleeding from the nose or gums
  • Bruising easily
  • A runny nose
  • A slight cough
  • High Fever
  • Small rashes

Dengue Symptoms in Toddlers:

  • A rais in the temperature (fever), which would last for about a week
  • Low temperature (lower than 96.8 degrees’F)
  • Be irritable and unsettled
  • Very agitated or sleepy
  • Cry much more than usual
  • Bleeding from gums or nose
  • Skin rashes
  • Vomit three or more times per day

Dengue Fever Transmission:

In India, the dengue virus is transmitted by a mosquito bite. It is commonly noted as the female mosquito transmits the dengue virus. This mosquito bites usually in daytime. Usually found closed and open areas. Other mosquito species can transmit the virus.

Aedes aegypti mosquitoes breed in open and closed areas, basically in wet places and rarely fly more than 200 meters from the breeding site. They do not breed in creeks, swamps, pools or other bodies of water.

Human beings are the most amplifying source for transmitting the virus. Dengue virus circulating in the blood of viraemic humans is ingested by female mosquitoes during feeding. The virus then infects the mosquito mid-gut and subsequently spreads systemically over a period of eight to twelve days. After this extrinsic incubation period, the virus can be transmitted to other humans during subsequent probing or feeding.

The extrinsic incubation period is influenced in part by environmental conditions, especially ambient temperature. Thereafter the mosquito remains infective for the rest of its life.

countries at risk of dengue transmission
Fig-2: Countries At Risk of Dengue Transmission

Dengue Diagnosis:

SnoConditionDetails
1Flu-like syndromesInfluenza, measles, Chikungunya, infectious mononucleosis
2Illnesses with a rash
  • Rubella
  • Measles
  • Scarlet fever
  • Meningococcal infection
  • Chikungunya
  • Drug reactions
3Diarrhoeal diseasesRotavirus, other enteric infections
4Illnesses with neurological manifestationsMeningo/encephalitis Febrile seizures
5Infectious
  • Acute gastroenteritis
  • Malaria
  • Leptospirosis
  • Typhoid
  • Typhus
  • Viral hepatitis
  • Acute HIV seroconversion illness
  • Bacterial sepsis
  • Septic shock
6MalignanciesAcute leukaemia and other malignancies
7Other clinical pictures
  • Acute abdomen
    • acute appendicitis
    • acute cholecystitis
    • perforated viscus
  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Lactic acidosis
  • Leukopenia and thrombocytopaenia ± bleeding
  • Platelet disorders
  • Renal failure
  • Respiratory distress (Kussmaul’s breathing)
  • Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

Severe Dengue Fever:

Severe dengue fever is considered if the patient is from dengue risk presenting with fever from more than 2 to 7 days with the following features:

  • Evidence of plasma leakage, such as:
    • High or progressively rising haematocrit;
    • Pleural effusions or ascites;
    • Circulatory compromise or shock (cold and clammy extremities, weak or undetectable pulse, narrow pulse pressure, un-recordable blood pressure)
  • Significant bleeding
  • An altered level of consciousness (restlessness, coma)
  • Severe gastrointestinal involvement (persistent vomiting, increasing or intense abdominal pain, jaundice)
  • Severe organ impairment (acute liver failure, acute renal failure) or other unusual manifestations

Dengue Fever Treatment:

Looking upon how severe the dengue fever is the doctors recommend some of the following tips and procedures to recover from the dengue fever.

  • Controlling fever and pain with Paracetamol rather than aspirin (aspirin may promote bleeding) and increasing fluid intake.
  • Aspirin should not be given to children under 12 years of age unless recommended by a doctor.
  • Transferring blood under doctor diagnosis.
  • Special care at Hospital.
  • Continues Observation.

However, watching out some signs and symptoms for Dengue fever while recovering is important. Call for emergency (+91 8008777555) if you find below severe dengue symptoms or consult doctor immediately.

  • Decreased urination
  • Few or no tears
  • Dry mouth or lips
  • Lethargy or confusion
  • Cold or clammy extremities

Prevention of Dengue:

  • Exclusion from childcare, preschool, school or work is usually not necessary but people experiencing fever from dengue infection should not be in an environment where they may be bitten by mosquitoes. If this is not possible they should stay at home until they have no fever and are therefore no longer infectious (usually 3 to 5 days).
  • There is no vaccine to prevent human infection by this virus.
  • Personal protection and the environmental management of mosquitoes are important in preventing illness.
  • Prevent access of mosquitoes to an infected person with a fever.
  • Protect yourself from mosquito bites at all times in dengue areas.

Citations:

The author MaxCure Hospitals

MaxCure Group of Hospitals is the fastest growing multi-speciality chain in India. Established in the year 2011, MaxCure Group of Hospitals has the vision to offer clinical excellence through experienced doctors, high-end infrastructure and transparent patient care which is on par with the best in the world.